Poljot (Russian: Полёт, literally meaning "flight"), is a brand of Soviet/Russian wristwatches, produced since 1964 by the First Moscow Watch Factory (Russian: Первый Московский Часовой Завод, ПМЧЗ, Perviy Moskovskiy Chasovoy Zavod). The flagship brand of the USSR's watch industry, Poljot produced numerous historical watches used in many important space missions, including the world's first space watch worn by Yuri Gagarin.
Founded in 1930 under orders from Stalin, the First State Watch Factory (Russian: Первый Государственный Часовой Завод - 1ГЧЗ) was the first Serious Soviet watch and mechanical movement manufacturer. Via its USA-based trading company Amtorg, the Soviet government bought the defunct Ansonia Clock Company ofBrooklyn, New York in 1929, and the Dueber-Hampden Watch Company of Canton, Ohio. It moved twenty-eight freight cars full of machinery and parts from the USA to Moscow in order to establish the factory. Twenty-one former Dueber-Hampden watchmakers, engravers and various other technicians helped to train the Russian workers in the art of watchmaking as part of the Soviet's First Five-Year Plan. Interestingly, the movements of very-early products were still stamped "Dueber-Hampden, Canton, Ohio, USA" (examples of these watches are very collectible today). In 1935 the factory was named after the murdered Soviet official Sergei Kirov.
As the Germans closed in on Moscow in 1941, the factory was hurriedly evacuated to Zlatoust (Russian: Златоу́ст). By
1943 the Germans were in retreat, and the factory moved back to Moscow, adopting the "First Moscow Watch Factory" name (Russian: Первый Московский Часовой Завод - 1МЧЗ).
On December 20th 1927 the Soviet government made a decision to establish a watch industry. In April 1930 construction of the main block of our factory began in the place of the old tobacco factory, and seven months later the factory came into operation in line with the active enterprises in the country. The first 50 pocket watches were made from the details of their own manufacturing for November 7th 1930 - from this moment the count of time began for the First Moscow Watch Factory. 1935 - the year in which the factory was given the name Sergei Mironovich Kirov - was crucial in the history of the factory. The reconstruction of the enterprise began. The production of pocket watches rose to 450 thousand. In addition, the manufacturing of special clocks for cars and airplanes was mastered. In 1955 the annual production of watches at the factory reached 1 million 100 thousand. The introduction of new equipment and new technological processes allowed the release of new types of watch with complex mechanisms: with a central second hand. Watch models such as 'Moskva', 'Mayak', 'Sportivnie', 'Rodina', 'Kirovskie' appeared. On April 12 1961 Yuriy Alekseevich Gararin took with him into the first space flight in the history of man a watch 'Shturmanskie'. The watch successfully sustained the space trial. The staff of the enterprise maintained close contacts with the cosmonauts: during the time in space our cosmonauts observed the factories devices of time. The name 'Poljot' the industrial firm received in commemoration of space travels. In 1977 marine chronometers and deck clocks from the First Moscow Factory cruised to the North Pole on an atomic-powered vessel 'Arktika' and sustained the ordeal with honor. According to the results of the work in 1991, 1992 and 1993, the factory was awarded International rewards 'For quality'. The First Moscow Watch Factory is the pioneer of watch manufacturing in the USSR. Almost all types of man's mechanical watches in the USSR, that were famous, were developed and produced in our factory.
(1930s' FSWF wristwatch with Dueber-Hampden designed movement)
(Poljot Aviator caliber 3133 chronograph)
PMChZ watches in Space
On April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space. During his historic flight he wore a Sturmanskie pilots wristwatch (a transliteration of Штурманские which actually means "Navigator"). This watch was not specially commissioned for the flight, they were standard issue to all air force pilots at the time. The success of the mission however lead to the factory being awarded the Poljot (Russian: Полет) name in 1964.
In 1965 cosmonaut Alexei Leonov wore a FMWF Strela (transliteration of СТРЕЛА, which actually means "Arrow") chronograph during his historic first space walk, thus cementing Poljot's place in space history. As with Gagarin's first flight, Leonov's watch was not specially commissioned. The Strela replaced the Shturmanskie as the standard issue pilots watch. In the late 1970s, the Strela itself was replaced by a new breed of chronographs based around the (then new) 3133 movement (a original Russian movement similar in functionality to the Swiss Valjoux 7734, but with higher number of jewels 23 vs 17 and lever movement operating at 21,600 bph vs 18,000 bph). Poljot 3133-based watches continued where their predecessors left off and were taken into space by cosmonauts from Russia, France, Germany and Ukraine. On the wrist of cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov, a Poljot 3133-based watch set a space record for the longest space flight in history.
(Sturmanskie Gagarin Re-Issue 2011)
During the Soviet era, Soviet watch brands including Poljot, but also Raketa watches, were marketed in the United Kingdom under the brand "Sekonda". Today's Sekonda company, a British distributor of ubiquitous fashion watches, has no connection to any Russian watches. At the turn of the 21st century, the First Moscow Watch Factory began reproducing many of their most famous models as limited edition commemorative pieces. Replicas were made of the famous 1960s Shturmanskie worn by Yuri Gagarin, the 1940s Kirova pilots chronograph, and the 1970s Ocean (Океан) chronograph. All of the replicas became sought-after collectibles.
In late 2003, rumors predicting the demise of the Poljot brand circulated on the Internet. According to the rumors, the First Moscow Watch Factory was to cease producing their own models and become a source of inexpensive movements for other European watch brands. These rumors never came to fruition. Instead, in the late 2000's, the company was bought by the businessman Sergeï Pugachev, becoming one of the companies of his new luxury group, including: Hédiard, and the channel Luxe TV.
(Chronograph Poljot "Blue Angels", caliber 3133)